[33] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. [21], The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell and depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca in codex illustrations. She was known as a evil god who fought against Quetzalcoatl. [29] Angered, Tezcatlipoca turned into a jaguar and destroyed the world. The meaning of his local name in other Mesoa… [6] Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. [9] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[10]. Quetzelcoatl also appeared on (Season 3) of the Animal Planet mockumentary Lost Tapes in an episode entitled "Q the Serpent God". Everyone, including commoners, high priests, and the king, were involved in some aspect of the Toxcatl ceremonies.[23]. In the Codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which, as described in the codex written by the Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and his Tlatelolcan informants, included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as: You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collaborated in the different creations and that both were seen as instrumental in the creation of life. 14-15. His main temple in Tenochtitlan included a platform reached by 80 stone steps. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. [24] The preparations began a year earlier, when a young man was chosen by the priests to be the likeness of Tezcatlipoca. This constitutes the Late Pre-Classic Period of the Mayan civilization. The Tezcatlipoca figure goes back to earlier Mesoamerican deities worshipped by the Olmec and Maya. Finding humanity to have grown violent and irreverent, he seeks to destroy and remake it by the equinox, but he went ahead with Quetzalcoatl 's bet to see if a human would close the gates of the underworld. For most things, Quetzalcoatl endorses communication and prosperity with a smiling face, saying that “it is wonderful everybody’s fineee, so this elder sister is happy!”, but she becomes displeased when talking about alcohol and Tezcatlipoca. [10] However, the fact that many images are difficult to identify as one god or another does not mean that no generalizations can be made about Tezcatlipoca's appearance. [citation needed], In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. According to many Aztec legends, Tezcatlipoca and his brother the god Quetzalcoatl created the world. These children would then have their skin painted black and be adorned with quail feathers in the image of the god. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation “Sun of Water”, and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking down Quetzalcoatl. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that: The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550s merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s. Quetzalcóatl was the son of the primordial androgynous god Ometeotl. Most were sung to praise the highest deities, including Tezcatlipoca, who was often addressed as the "Giver of Life." In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. In the Aztec creation myth, Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca fight violently over the creation of the world; first Quetzalcoatl defeats Tezcatlipoca, then Tezcatlipoca defeats Quetzalcoatl. The two later cooperated, however, to create the 5th Sun. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Tezcatlipoca is a character in Onyx Equinox. Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. In the complex Mesoamerican creation myths Tezcatlipoca ruled the first world of the Sun but was then overthrown by Quetzalcóatl. His cult was associated with royalty, and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the rites of kingship, as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca(テスカトリポカ, Tesukatoripoka?) On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. In the Aztec ritual calendar the Tonalpohualli Tezcatlipoca ruled the trecena 1 Ocelotl ("1 Jaguar")—he was also patron of the days with the name Acatl ("reed").[8]. Tezcatlipoca and his followers came to Earth from another world thousands of years ago, along with his enemy Quetzalcoatl to monitor the evolution of the human race if mankind had developed on the wrong track here would use their vast powers to destroy the world and permit after its reconstruction, then return to Quetzalcoatl into outer space. [17] They would also cover the sick and newly appointed king in a similar manner with a black ointment to encourage an association with the god. "[4], The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. [5] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[6]. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month, when the Miccailhuitontli "Little Feast of the Dead" was celebrated to honour the dead, as well as during the Panquetzaliztli "Raising of Banners" ceremony in the 15th month. In the reign of Quetzalcoatl there was peace and plenty for all men. Tezcatlipoca’s cult was brought to central Mexico by the Toltecs, Nahua-speaking warriors from the north, about the end of the 10th century ad. Tezcatlipoca is the offspring of the creator couple, who produced four sons: Red Tezcatlipoca, Black Tezcatlipoca, Qeutzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli (the patron god of the Aztecs). After a slapstick-style chase scene, Xavier winds up as the Sun God and commits "sacricide" (sacrificial suicide), ending the skit. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. But he had his wife taken away by Tezcatlipoca. This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers, as such objects have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica,[7] and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools, which were elemental forces that had significance in Aztec mythology. Many temples built to honour Tezcatlipoca were aligned east to west, as he was associated with the sun. One of Tezcatlipoca’s brothers was Quetzalcoatl. [need quotation to verify] Codex drawings pictured both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico (Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. [27] The young man also was dressed in the likeness of the god and people on the streets would worship him as such when encountered. He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Sun of Wind" by striking down Quetzalcoatl. He is often shown with his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror, bone, or a snake—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses his foot battling with the Earth Monster. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. "[8] Tezcatlipoca appears on the first page of the Codex Borgia carrying the 20 day signs of the calendar; in the Codex Cospi he is shown as a spirit of darkness, as well as in the Codex Laud and the Dresden Codex. In Aztec mythology he was the brother of Quetzalcoatl, Huizilopochtli and Xipe Totec. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were brothers in divine myths, where they worked together as creators, and against each other in acts of destruction. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent". Tezcatlipoca is one of the Aztec gods with Quetzalcoatl governing the cycle of Creation.. Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia. One purpose of this myth is to validate the Aztec custom of sacrificing live human hearts. [16] Another common practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground charcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at the temple or during rituals. The priests of Tezcatlipoca often wore the ornaments of the god and wore specific garments for different rituals. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Tier: At most 1-A. Tezcatlipoca's nagual, his animal counterpart, was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl ("Mountainheart"). The Nahuatl word quetzalli means "long green feather" (Molina: ), but later came to be applied also to the bird who give these feathers: the Resplendent Quetzal. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Background. [21] Utter respect from the highest position of Aztec nobility, the king, shown through the figurative and literal nakedness of his presence in front of Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. He feuded with his brother Quetzalcoatl and emerged victorious after tricking his younger sibling into shaming himself. Like Sphinx, she was one of the “Ancient Gods” – great monsters who existed and had been revered in various region in ancient times, though not actual gods. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. This person deeply regrets that she was defeated in the battle with Tezcatlipoca, while simultaneously, she feels a lot of resentment as a result. This individual was called the ixiptla or "deity impersonator" and was chosen to ceremonially represent the god to the Aztec people. In what manner shall I act for the governed, for the vassals (macehualtin)? Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. Quetzalcoatl was defeated by Tezcatlipoca… It has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods.[6]. Tezcatlipoca was also worshipped in many other Nahua cities such as Texcoco, Tlaxcala and Chalco. [4][5], He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects of his deity: Titlacauan /ˌtɪtləˈkaʊən/ ("We Are His Slaves"), Ipalnemoani ("He by Whom We Live"), Necoc Yaotl ("Enemy of Both Sides"), Tloque Nahuaque ("Lord of the Near and the Nigh") and Yohualli Èhecatl ("Night, Wind"), Ome Acatl[6] ("Two Reed"), Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque ("Possessor of the Sky and Earth"). It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. The gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca brought the earth goddess Tlalteuctli down … Most documents expounding this t… [23] The young man would spend his last week singing, feasting and dancing. It is the black Tezcatlipoca that most Aztec myths refer to. Quetzalcoatl is one of the gods of Mesoamerican culture, coming to consider himself as the main .. from the pre-Hispanic pantheon; Among others, Alfredo López Austin considers Quetzalcóatl as the main deity from which the others are generated from the split, but some like Miguel León-Portilla, consider Tezcatlipoca as the main god (essay Tezcatlipoca, Principal God) and others … Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). Due to the lack of surviving images, some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisible god'. There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in the colonial period. (Many academics conclude this passage implies incest.) In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. In this legend, Mixcoatl shot at Chimalma for spurning his advances. Depending on the site half of his leg, the full length of his arms, the majority of his legs, or any combination thereof can be depicted. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility. And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. 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