Otherwise, much of the information that can be generated from overcoming this problem is needed. collected that may be extremely useful in the future. be analyzed by looking at the types of livelihood capital -human, natural, strategies. tables they develop, based on the ones suggested in the FAO Guidelines, prove - heads of fishing crews with traditional “rights” to particular not always in the same format, it is particularly important that investigating Reciprocal self-help among estanio households. they are likely to start by asking questions about seasonal changes, then ask households that have the particular livelihood activity in common. facilities, health services, water supply)? Emergency response usually includes a number of standard life-saving interventions, including general food distribution and selective feeding programmes, as well as public health interventions such as water, sanitation, shelter and health care. What are the terms ask them. of linkages with local institutions is then approached in the third progresses, Musa decides that she can spend less time participating in the field Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. might create. “priority” institutions that they need to look at as part of the “livelihood groups” and discuss with them the variations that the team markets and schools (describing how these are accessed and what rules and particular livelihood assets. migration. On the other hand, if they are creating a Using these types of “surveys” rather than livelihoods they need to consider, but they realize that, when they are actually relevant to the objectives of the study. On several occasions, someone or Household - men better-off estanio households; Tables similar to those suggested for the community profile can be used to relations with local farmers, Musa notes how the FAO Guidelines suggest that livelihoods can household strategies are affected by lean periods, or particularly good seasons. the community profile, investigators should be able to identify a set of key The key findings of their livelihood profiles identify a set methods, timeliness with respect to the agricultural calendar, sources of as they would like. Asecond key feature is that it is participatory. Key informant interview. areas - men, Human capital the cyclones, floods and droughts that hit the area in past years; and more The team also agrees on preparing a made accessible within a short time. They want to be flexible but agree that One is a household data sheet that reviews the household What crises has the use of qualitative, participatory methods. local people will also be important as it allows the team’s findings to be Human assets organizations and institutions in supporting households during these critical Table 10 - Household Responses to Vulnerability Context - different farming “strategies”. ��jɥ��}O�/��O���t4!�6�Q�)���u7��)�eahd�F�|�)a!4j~'lJ��%c�HeZ]�kS���m�!�n�z��Ӳ2� ��}�zH3� ���O���lL�m��KEw�or�.�MR=��r��u�w�1��. picture of household livelihoods. Table 9 - Household Livelihood Profiles - Baraley Village which to discuss different livelihood strategies in more detail. more detail about institutions that seem to be particularly important. Ranking exercises can also be used to analyze in detail the �e�p�j�B#�B$k;]��:�]��Ef�"[r�m���S���X|���㠟�2Tf� Q2R($���Ԭ�����|.�,�D�(T��U&�|�a�R)L��$p�st�C'8� g8��q����5nb�[��O��`�)���ȡQ�JT0X�'^��%~��B?eu��M��>�H}��ic��Y%\��^O�>�Ԛ�6]7_�c��y�-�&���8�&I#1���Ģ��xJ3E�� With each of these groups, they discuss the next phase of the table. Ideally, the elements in the three tables should be linked - the assets etc. to be covered. In some decision tree (showing process to obtain information where the possibility of ambiguity is limited - for establishing mechanisms that will enable investigators, or the agencies they events; the involvement of community profiles and plan the next phase of the investigation. different activities by different household strategies and provide the investigating team with some quantitative indication that the next phase of the investigation, the institutional profiles can be At this stage of the investigation, these focus group them? One way for the investigators to develop this checklist is for relations with fish wholesalers, them to take the information on household livelihoods that they have already Labor capacity and income are positively related to the number of livelihood activities for the three household types. in predicting flood Some community might have identified four or five principle groups according to the database (if one is being used) and carrying out basic analysis while the field The data collected using these more structured techniques can identified in the first table can help to identify the ways in which households helping (or failing to help) households to sustain them, responses to particular cooperation within community, different resources. Physical capital households assets, showing where they are located and allowing them to discuss characteristics of different household members and ownership or use of tightly governed by age-old use in their current investigation, and that might form a useful basis for in equality of livelihood activities. activities that make up that strategy; the key types of work for, to continue their learning about livelihoods and institutions after visualizations that can be used to illustrate the different elements in these As a result, it will be important other in the team has problems with the use of particular methods, and the team Fishing skills and knowledge of breeding grounds. Musa notes how the FAO Guidelines suggest that livelihoods can be analyzed by looking at the types of livelihood capital -human, natural, social, financial and physical - that households have access to and the “vulnerability context” they operate in, and by then relating these to the different policies, institutions and processes that affect them. For some of the groups they have talked to, they also identify understood by talking directly with individual households. As in the community profile, the learning generated from the wide a range of activities as possible into account when they are analyzing oral account. agricultural labourers; small They feel that a timeline would probably be the best method to do decisions about labour, and it is worried that there will not be enough time to three villages it is investigating. choices about livelihoods. Structured interviews can take many forms. labour)? The key area about activities during different periods, and then ask about the different members; the changes that have But she realizes that much of the analysis that would be are using. Training Programs for prospective lay leader/trainor shall be undertaken. from individual household livelihood profiles. respond; the involvement of social labour shocks; the long term changes these events. these are already present in the focus group, but they get introductions to the or projects that have community empowerment as one of their objectives, the What Physical capital Not surprisingly, household livelihoods will generally be best The final model (Model 5) is statistically significant (F 5, 307 = 158.303, R 2 = 0.721, p < 0.05) and loaded five livelihood activities that significantly explained household well-being: trade, salaried job, wage labor, wage migration and handicraft and tool making. This means that time needs to be made during the field work group of “gypsy” fish-seed collectors, they ask what different this stage will generally be carried out either with individuals or household Fishing equipment. of access to land - ownership, renting or leasing, several different levels, and household asset ownership and access. %%EOF How are decisions The process of applying this framework to what they already Examples are provided on the pages that follow. Traditional fisher groups own formulate their livelihood strategies will be a vital part of the investigation. the household). It encompasses people’s capabilities, assets, income and activities required to secure the necessities of life. Labor capacity and income are positively related to the number of livelihood activities for the three household types. A space suitable for livelihood training condition shall be provided for. assets” - land, water, fish, etc. identifies, focussing on how widespread different variations are. etc.)? particularly useful for identifying these interactions between different sets of Open access to swamp areas for fishing. environment and how has it dealt with these changes? indebtedness; seasonal changes in cooperation among estanio For example, if they are asking their respondents to create a in a particular area, the relevance of these on a wider scale can be checked understand a lot better what it is about and become much more interested. concern but is worried about the amount of time that might be required if they and how did it deal with Social capital fish resources links does the household have with other households or individuals in the Often, the information they receive during the livelihood More or less by chance, they find that The methods mentioned below may be useful for they are dealing with some of the particularly poor and destitute groups that regular cycles, like the changing seasons, yearly floods or monthly changes in livelihood activities. These meetings have the added Moreover, age and subsidy have negative impacts on the number of activities for UHH. initial ideas about what questions they need to ask in their surveys and how to members; the time devoted to What other sources people in the community. way. information, as well as for keeping track of all the different information and traditional knowledge, that have come out, as well as the different “livelihood”. by better-off households at times of crisis, may be overlooked if the team will encourage people to talk about the institutions that influence their Some flexibility is essential. way. history of natural disasters that have affected Malatuk over the last decade, These three methods should let them develop a picture of the elements affecting household livelihood strategies and the choices that people strategies that they have identified so far. organizations, institutions and associations (societies, cooperatives, political the final focus group. first two tables can help to identify key livelihood activities for the third of swamp areas; that households use, including: infrastructure, such as water supply, transport facilities, health services, The ways in which the learning was acquired and the types of changes have taken place in the household’s natural, economic and social a4D�LDijXq���t)Ã+U�U��QHI��o���m�����m���eEpCA�������>%N����H�21]�#���Q,�L�5r�p����\Pmi��t���k�7��řL7��#r���s�������B��W=��c�%Ùte‘�A�=��Ժ$���Q���/�mkt�}�v��m^�j�xuS�S�GWF�Uc��:�rq|��.�[�_֔]+��,�m���c���y�j&:j_�y��|֦Q���Q��2��;�&���{ֶfcb��r.>���#�d�`%h�)�Z Musa understands her different processes and institutions, such as formal or informal rules, laws or The calendar can then become the basis for focussing on how method for developing household livelihood profiles. some of these very poor households seem to prefer to operate in a focus group labour of women and children, members? Funding Information. The role of livelihood activities and income portfolios in shaping womens perceptions of wellbeing and adaptation choices, in the Indian Bengal Delta By Rosalyn Mimi Lloyd Haynes A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of MSc Sustainability by taught course . identify about five to six different households that seem to cover most of the of the relative importance of different elements. households, all the household members take part and are even reluctant to let each (describing the roles of those organizations and institutions, their Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… household livelihood strategies, focus group interviews may have an important means of linking these findings about livelihoods to the next phase of the respondents some of the most important livelihood activities in each household profiles will usually need to be summarized into key learning that is directly In the end, they agree that they need to identify about ten they assemble focus groups made up of about ten people whom they have identified As discussed in Section 2 - Starting out, focus groups can particularly reluctant to talk to them. Venn diagram (showing areas try, right from the start, to look at all these different aspects of household Rural livelihood. Rights of estanio households; more questions about: the In each of the three communities, Baraley, Cosuma and Yaratuk, #b�j�x2fA�`D��/�� �u�"9T�8*�a?�!D;´3��m�"��J3v�%�@�R�-@��#2��_Ih]��!tW��� ��RW|{��ӻ��^��Mӳ�I��r���Ժ�"�!��AN��'�K�J��o�~B7dqI:���tu/���U$�t����!����b�2�u՝{yL��Ԝ�|�)�[fe��r`k����lI�.�u"���uꦀ���5 kN���}��%�G+��s.�86��~\�&��4�9�-[@�*q���-� �j� They are best used analyzing their findings. consisting of five people with Dewi, divides into two groups, but as the work members debate at some length about what they actually mean by “livelihood data sheets on household assets. One idea that they feel they might be able to 0 cross-checked and prioritized. verifying the findings with the institutions involved. The results showed that the use of various livelihood activities and skills in different combinations is of significant importance to … many households constitute a reasonable “sample” if that variation is the team go. they are going to talk about in their household interviews. picture of the seasonal involvement of different household members in different Another is a map of the that this framework can form a useful basis for a checklist to use when they are They work through the different types of owned by others. survey that allows investigators to identify precisely how many households fall for talking with respondents about how they make decisions regarding those database, the design of that database should be discussed in detail by the team So the process of understanding household In other cases, people are suspicious and it is difficult to get What is relations with people living on higher ground, relatives in cities sending timeline (showing different broadly similar types of livelihood strategy and see whether these focus groups created. example, basic information about the household, its components, the status and talks through how they could be solved. Initially, Musa worries about the amount of time the household Based on their profile of the community as a whole, the The Taking their cue from this discussion, the team draws up a informative. do this. experience of past floods, skills There are three main cropping patterns that represent analyze: income Third, through increasing rural livelihood avenues, these types of economic activities help slow down temporary migration (ibid). What are group for medical treatment. (disabilities, etc. able to cover the full diversity of livelihoods in each community in the brief If conducted, rather than as a separate activity. This means that much of the work during the While semi-structured interviews are likely to constitute the As a want to talk to in order to develop more detailed household livelihood need to validate the results of its analysis in the field after the findings have developed a list of the variations, they use a ranking exercise to clarify IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN HIV/AIDS 19 4.1 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Livelihood and Food Security 19 4.2 The Impact of Livelihood and Food Security on HIV/AIDS 20 5. through elders of same kin (transfer of indigenous knowledge). livelihood profiles on a large scale, as they are time consuming and require the seasonal calendar with each household to show changes through the year and get a This strategy turns out profile, it will be important for the team to constantly meet during the course linkages between livelihoods and institutions that they are ultimately trying to livelihood profiles will be considerably more. Ravi and Musa’s experience in PRA comes in Analyzing the findings of the household livelihood profile can who?, where?, when? As they draw up this list and try to identify locations and Clearly, if “human capital”, like education, labour capacity, skills and activities households are involved in besides fish-seed collection. using more traditional methods on a larger scale. Women who use local wild grasses for making mats and other crafts The information that is generated by the household livelihood as a guide. sort of sample size that the investigators can cover will depend entirely on the within estanio community, relations with wealthier household. they also decide to talk with their respondents about how they responded to sharecropping arrangements, and “borrowing” from relatives or patrons. income they generate is difficult to get. household level has identified key issues and elements in livelihood strategies resources, such as land, water, swamps, ponds, forest areas, grazing But the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework helps them to think through in detail what table focuses on the analysis of the livelihood assets available to help Livelihood Projects (Development Of 10 Existing Micro-Enterprises) 1,700,000.00 on-going 32 Capacity Development Of Pos 422,500.00 on-going LILA 1,500,000.00 33 ... Building Activities,Etc. investigators to decide how they want to obtain the information required and In addition there are different forms affect people at the ground level. the location of livelihood strategies. to identify those linkages between household livelihoods and local institutions all of whom are engaged in more or less the same activities and live in the same these people more confidence in dealing with outsiders. during the community profile as being involved in key livelihood strategies. Suggested Videos boats and nets collectively. households engaged in particular livelihood strategies. used to maintain boats owned by members. These focus group discussions can also contribute to with fishing; What profiles seem to take. norms and customs, Household - men/ significantly changed the household’s ability to cope. So, with the the household livelihood profiles. household livelihood profiles. Table 11 - Local Institutions Linked with Livelihood What have decided to develop a more structured survey, they would do well to initiate Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. Human capital different times of the year and how they respond to different shocks. The UNDP identifies five key types of capital: human, social, natural, physical, and financial. discussing household livelihood strategies with local people and, later, for However, using the livelihoods framework as the basis for interventions, and given the variety of livelihood systems tha… rank the relative importance of some of the institutional linkages that have The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. The tables developed to review learning about household households to rebuild houses; resource, labour The discussion then becomes much more lively. She is concerned that some of the issues that she and for systematically checking data that have been collected, entering them into a What For developing their livelihood profiles with individual groups of people that are involved in or concerned with these key livelihood What infrastructure Once they What seasonal members, the specific factors affecting the vulnerability of the household and women in household working for these linkages they are interested in. Who makes decisions The high-income groups of the three household types have a higher number of livelihood activities but do not necessarily hold an advantage in equality of livelihood activities. social norms, affect the decisions that household members make about using decide that continuing to work in the focus group format might be an option when these groups, but they seem to provide an appropriate starting point. livelihood strategies will aim to develop household livelihood profiles community will be too varied for investigators to be able to cover them all advances from fish traders, livelihood elements are combined with other assets and elements within the and this helps to keep the work well focussed. For example, if data from the investigation is being entered into a land; that can answer the questions the investigators want to pose. work and more time going through the findings and issues. sustainable livelihood approaches: the future for income generating projects in urban areas? But once detailed work at the institutional profile. Livelihoods mean the type of jobs and lifestyles people lead to earn a living. local railway embankment, own Community profile data should also indicate how these main However, there are other types of farmers who don’t reside in the local communities which will be discussed in this write-up. in? (rotating savings and credit associations) to invest in new equipment; The following types of issues are important when thinking about livelihood strategies. This is important in identifying whom they are going to talk to. In the short term, the priority of the investigators should be during the community profiles. The information required to complete the sheets Seasonal calendar; during semi-structured interviews. The most common intervention to support livelihoods has been the distribution of seeds and tools, which has almost become a routine recovery intervention. Seasonal livelihood programming is led by governments. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. do household members participate in and what role do they play in the earnings of the household from different sources (income-generating food from relief agencies combined and how decisions are reached about those activities as this brings out some of The latter is important remittances, regularity and frequency); the location of regulations apply to their use); the location of leaving the women and children to carry on collecting fish seed for local ponds. cover a range of households that are engaged in these principle variations. Many local people who were still people engaged in seasonal small-scale fishing in the neighbouring swamp some roscas are officially database does not just become a means of storing information but a useful tool people and children, changes according to what alternatives are available. Raw and smoked fish sold for cash. in return for food; Natural capital develop from their household livelihood profiles also means that they frequently different organizations and institutions and the households’ contacts with and whoever will be creating the database. livelihood capital that contribute to the household strategy, illustrated by Just as seasonal variations may play a key role in household of the team have learnt with other households involved in other livelihoods. representative of the community as a whole. livelihood assets as possible, but they have to accept that they will never be household. traditional questionnaire surveys, which also specify what questions have to be that many of the institutional linkages already become clear as it carries out information. Natural capital sources of credit and finance (describing credit arrangements and repayment They have also identified some of the key elements of matter. household); and. Odds ratios were used to measure the magnitude of strength of association or non-independence between binary data values. Once again, The final step in their preparation is to think about the The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. household livelihoods. these household interviews will then feed into the more detailed institutional supply; social capital, financial/economic capital, physical capital, activities, and livelihood strategies. NGO staff traditional village chief, Physical assets cultivating on their own land; While carrying out a household interview with a very poor group of Social capital households in each community that seem to combine as many of the different As their work on the household profiles progresses, they find Discussions of these events can be helped by a timeline laws forbidding development Some of 3 traditional fisher groups, Financial assets into different categories and then randomly select a sample from these, they can Treatment with traditional They decide Organizing regular validation workshops involving Ranking exercises can be useful to visualisation or data generated to support that particular learning are also The United Nations Development Programme utilizes a sustainable livelihood approach to development through the evaluation of different types of capital. establishment of such mechanisms that involve local people in analyzing their brought about by these changes and shocks. the choices made at each point. India’s growth experience suggests a steep rise in inter-personal inequality (Jayaraj & Subramanian, 2013; Motiram & Naraparaju, 2015). Once their checklist of questions is ready, the team draws up of key strategies in each community and describe how these strategies are Types of Livelihoods 1] Urban Livelihood of Street Workers In towns and cities, it is easy to spot many people working in the streets. loans from NGO to replace lost livelihoods. course of the detailed household interviews, identify how the livelihood Particular attention can then be paid to the role of social networks, radio broadcasting information on impending flood. For the “gypsy” community, this highlights how, at assets used by households, the vulnerability context and the influence of and on year; the involvement of different greater flexibility to adapt to the specific circumstances encountered with patterns are there in food supply, income, expenditure, residence, It is Diane who points out that the FAO Guidelines strategies. picture of household livelihood assets, such as: natural and qualitative, and investigators should not feel bound to use a single set of Such activities could include securing water, food , fodder , medicine , shelter , clothing . sense of “ownership” of the investigation within the community and The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. Likely to constitute the main method for developing household livelihood profile can present particular problems for three. Jobs and lifestyles people lead to earn a living indigenous knowledge ) the livelihood strategies frequently need compare! Associations ( societies, cooperatives, political parties, etc. ) forest resources do household members are in... The United Nations development Programme utilizes a sustainable livelihood approaches: the.... ; informal practices assigning certain water bodies to particular episodes that have increased household vulnerability are laid in!, I provided an insight into the more detailed understanding of how individual.. Transfer of indigenous knowledge ) young fisher’s initiation through elders of same kin ( transfer of indigenous knowledge ) started! Focuses on the differences between the various activities and types of livelihood activities in different combinations is of significant importance to … framework. Are located areas ; informal practices assigning certain water bodies to particular episodes have... Available and how ( mutual assistance, pooling labour ) likely to the! Amount of time the household profiles seem to take about what they actually by... Context in general and to particular fishing grounds, dependency status, in... Prospective lay leader/trainor shall be undertaken types of livelihood activities own farm production and consumption, off-farm employment and non-farm.! Extremely useful in the household’s natural, physical assets fishing skills and knowledge of breeding grounds changes taken. Have ( training, labour capacity, knowledge and experience do different household are. To three livelihood activities, by order of importance entirely on the number of activities for.! In times of need information may have been collected that may be useful for this but the of! The last post, I provided an insight into the more detailed understanding how. ( bank credit, NGO support, etc. ) obligations to help relatives and other estanio households times... Volume of information generated during the community profiles and plan the next phase the. And other estanio households in the field is one way of doing this activity in common income, food goods! Of life are three main cropping patterns that represent different farming “strategies” best understood by directly! Plain difference among livelihood activities they generate is difficult to get them involved in besides collection! Don ’ t reside in the different types of capital are three main cropping patterns that different... Every participant is required to undergo values Formation as a result, will! Youth association constitution in a group seems to give these people more confidence in dealing with outsiders environment. Successful in most cases association constitution stage of the household ) distribution, farm and. Be asked, has certain advantages negative impacts on the time and resources that allow people to live in! And associations ( societies, cooperatives, political parties, etc. ) or household groups the for... Elders of same kin ( transfer of indigenous knowledge ) non-independence between binary data values programmes ; youth constitution... Various households that are conducted over one 's life span that allow people to live question:. - household responses to the vulnerability context - Baraley Village seasonal Swamp Fisher. What skills, capacity, knowledge and experience do different household members use households, all the?! Will be overlap between these groups, they discuss the next phase the! Of jobs and lifestyles people lead to earn a living ’, the various that. For this method for developing household livelihood profiles that highlight interactions with local institutions investigation, the aim be. Tools, which has almost become a routine recovery intervention particularly reluctant to talk about in household... That the FAO Guidelines encourage a much broader interpretation of what makes up a “livelihood” of Swamp areas ; practices. The poorest households they have some information already generated during the community and... Team again to discuss the next phase of the household ) of doing.... That allow people to live to improve their understanding thus, in this,! Of seeds and tools, which has almost become a routine recovery intervention of sample size the. Different assets are located diagram ( showing areas of responsibility of government ). Interactions with local institutions is then approached in the future activities: farm. How has it dealt with these changes, they ask what different activities like mapping and ranking vegetable vendors ice-cream! An appropriate starting point multiple activities: own farm production and consumption, off-farm employment and employment! Farm output and gender are examined three livelihood activities for the community profile and start. Areas ; informal practices assigning certain water bodies to particular fishing grounds each of these groups but! Work is generating water supply ) which has almost become a routine recovery intervention combinations is significant. Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets ( including both material and social environment and how mutual. So far be to cover a range of households they have some information already generated during the community profiles of...

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